In France, for example, extra funds are raised by way of basic taxation (income tax) and ‘sin taxes’ on alcohol and tobacco. France additionally requires co-payments at the level of entry which might be capped. Co-funds additionally apply in Germany – eg, for each day of an inpatient keep – and are capped at 2 per cent of family income, or much less for sure groups that meet the standards (Robertson et al 2014). Employer-based PHI schemes could make staff with higher health risks less more likely to move to new employers and less capable of work as self-employed or in smaller corporations, leading some to argue that it makes international locations less competitive in a global market. Finance ministries the world over, including HM Treasury, could resist hypothecated taxes, mainly as a result of they scale back flexibility in deciding on spending priorities that can change over time.
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